Various problems with health, skin, weight, well-being sooner or later make a person think about proper nutrition. Proper nutrition is not always a strict diet, not the absence of goodies in the diet, not exhausting oneself. This is a way of life that needs to be approached consciously.
Healthy nutrition is the basis on which the overall healthy and vigorous state of the body, excellent mood, external attractiveness and performance are built.
The principles of proper nutrition
Proper nutrition is based on the following principles :
- Diet variety . To lose weight, you do not need to eat only kefir and cucumbers! The menu should be tasty, healthy, varied.
- Fractionality of nutrition . The daily calorie intake should be divided into three main meals and one or two snacks. Breakfast – 30%, lunch – 35%, dinner – 25%, two snacks – 10%. There are cases when a person is shown a strict three meals a day, for example, in case of carbohydrate metabolism disorders, with insulin resistance. And in some cases, such as fatigued adrenal syndrome, five meals a day are necessary, fasting will do more harm than good.
- Most of the menu should be natural products , without artificial additives, sugar and sweeteners.
At the same time, the diet should fit into the norms for calories, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, if, in addition to switching to proper nutrition, you have the task of adjusting your weight.
There are a few more principles that will help change your diet for the better :
- drink enough (at least 2 liters per day) of clean water;
- to eat when he began to feel hungry – it is very important to eat exactly when you are hungry, preferably without snacks, for the prevention of insulin resistance, ideally – three meals a day;
- chew every bite well, and even more than that, eat slowly, consciously, chew with the fork aside;
- eat in a calm state;
- concentrate on the process while eating;
- eat sitting, preferably with both feet on the floor;
- actively move throughout the day – at least 10,000 steps a day have not been canceled;
- eat freshly prepared food;
- eat more fiber – fresh fruits and vegetables;
- eat fish at least 2 times a week to get omega 3 fatty acids from food.
How to start the transition to proper nutrition
The transition to a new type of food consists of five steps :
- Remove food that is not beneficial to the body , containing the so-called “empty calories”. These are pastries, confectionery, sweets, sausages and semi-finished products, mayonnaises, sauces.
- Exclude alcohol . Some studies show that such drinks affect the neurons in the brain that are responsible for appetite. The more a person drinks, the more they eat. Also, the intake of alcoholic beverages is often accompanied by various snacks, snacks, which is highly undesirable.
- Keep track of water balance . Every day you need to drink at least 1.5 liters of pure water. The approximate rate is calculated by the formula: 30 milliliters per kilogram of ideal weight.
- Make up a diet . As already mentioned, it is necessary to divide the daily calorie content into several meals. For everyone, set the most convenient time and stick to it. The schedule should be approximately the same for all days.
- Gain strength and patience . Switching to a new lifestyle can be challenging.
In fact, the process of changing habits is extremely complex. The usual advice won’t help. Do not read reviews of losing weight on the Internet about magical diets. In fact, only two percent of people are able to lose weight on their own, without harm to health, at home. In all other cases, qualified help from weight loss specialists is required. These are nutritionists, and psychologists, and personal consultants.
The transition to a new way of life should be gradual. Below are five basic rules. You need to introduce them one by one, so it will be easier for the body to adapt.
So, the correct transition is based on the following principles :
- Be sure to have breakfast . Typically, those who skip the morning meal eat more throughout the day. Breakfast should be balanced, include proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
- Don’t rule out dinner . It is as important as breakfast. The only thing is that it is necessary to remove heavy, fatty, highly salty foods from it, since it can adversely affect the digestive processes, causing discomfort, heaviness, and bloating.
- Keep a food diary . At first, clients are not limited in their usual food, but are offered to write down everything that is eaten during the day. At the end of the week, the weight loss specialist analyzes the records to indicate problems. Clients themselves notice at what moments they should refrain from snacking. Also, a food diary helps track food intolerances and understand which foods cause certain reactions from the gastrointestinal tract.
- Learn to count calories, proteins, fats, carbohydrates . You can use the application on your phone or online resources.
To make the transition mode a little easier, you can find a healthy alternative to unhealthy meals. Now on the Internet there are many recipes for pastries without gluten, lactose, sucrose, various homemade sausages, ham and much more.
Usually people who want to lose weight go from one extreme to another, putting the body under serious stress. Here are the main mistakes losing weight :
- Excessive reduction in calorie intake . For weight loss, it is enough to reduce consumption by 10-15 percent. Normal and most mild is the loss of 1 kg per week.
- Refusal of breakfast or dinner .
- Adherence to different diets, especially high-protein or low-carb .
The main rule of weight loss is balance. In nutrition, in training, in cosmetic procedures. This is the only way to get rid of extra pounds without harming your health and then save the result.
List of products for proper nutrition
When drawing up a healthy eating plan, be sure to include the following foods on the menu :
- Sea fish and seafood . Fish oil reduces the risk of cholesterol plaques, heart attacks and strokes. The presence of fish in the diet improves the condition of hair and nails. Omega 3 fatty acids are structural components of cell membranes. They are necessary for the plasticity and fluidity of cell membranes. The cardiovascular system and the brain are the first to suffer when Omega 3 fatty acids are deficient, as they need DHA acids the most (the highest concentration of DHA is in the brain, especially in the gray matter). The lack of plasticity of the cell membranes of the brain leads to a decrease in human cognitive abilities, psycho-emotional disorders.
- eggs . Prevent stomach ulcers, pancreatitis and disorders of the nervous system. Eggs are an excellent source of easily digestible protein, and we need protein for the functioning of many body systems – it is both the building material of body cells and the basis of the immune and enzymatic systems.
- Berries . Any berries slow down the aging process in the body. They should be on the table for those suffering from diabetes and being overweight. Berries are also an excellent source of antioxidants that inhibit lipid oxidation. Antioxidants are found in large quantities in fresh berries such as sea buckthorn, blueberries, grapes, cranberries, mountain ash, currants, and pomegranates.
- Legume crops . They perfectly satisfy hunger, provide a supply of necessary energy, improve the digestion process. Do not forget that all legumes must be soaked before cooking.
- Whole grain products . Bread and pasta made from whole wheat varieties saturate the body with the “right” carbohydrates that are safe for the figure. And dishes from wholemeal flour prevent the occurrence of obesity, heart disease, and diabetes.
- Dairy products . Those who are afraid to get better should choose low-fat dairy products without added sugar.
- Vegetables . They should be on the table of any person who monitors his diet. Orange and red vegetables are considered especially useful.
- Olive oil . Removes toxins from the body, lowers cholesterol, takes care of the health of the liver.
What foods should be avoided
Certain foods are contrary to the principles of healthy eating. It is necessary to exclude them from the diet or reduce their use to a minimum. These include :
- Purchased canned food . In order for meat, fish, vegetables and legumes to be stored for a long time, manufacturers add dyes and preservatives, a lot of salt, and vinegar to them. Preference should be given to home canning, but you should not even get carried away with it.
- Mayonnaise-based sauces . Beloved by many, cheese, garlic, spicy and other sauces are prepared with mayonnaise. This dressing does not add any benefit to the dish.
- Smoked products . When smoking meat and fish, a lot of salt is added. Eating such foods burdens the kidneys.
- Fried foods . Often they are cooked using low-quality oil, which leads to excess weight.
- Sweet carbonated drinks . They contain a lot of sugar, which is deposited on the body in the form of extra pounds.
- Sweets . They are called “fast” carbohydrates. If they are not consumed immediately, they will turn into excess weight.
How to make a proper nutrition menu, what to look for
To make a diet of proper nutrition, you need to take into account all your features. There is no universal menu, just as there are no identical people. For example, the standard menu will not suit a person with gluten intolerance, as it contains it. First you need to establish what restrictions individual diseases can impose, and, observing them, adjust the menu for yourself personally. It is recommended to consult a doctor or nutritionist.
Caloric content is the amount of energy that is formed during the breakdown and processing of food. It ranges from 1800 to 3000 kcal per day, depending on: age, lifestyle, metabolic rate.
If you lead an active lifestyle and do a lot of sports, then your menu will be more high-calorie due to protein foods than the average person – for active muscle growth and maintain a fast metabolism.
With a sedentary lifestyle, on the contrary, you need to reduce the proportion of carbohydrates and unhealthy fats so as not to gain excess weight, since the extra calories consumed are not burned.
The approximate ratio of substances per day is :
- Proteins – 25-35%
- Fats – 25-35%
- Carbohydrates – 30-50%
Proteins are high molecular weight nitrogen-containing substances, consisting of amino acid residues linked by peptide bonds.
By origin, proteins can be divided into animal and vegetable. Animal protein sources include all meat products, fish, eggs, fatty cheeses. Plant proteins are found in leafy greens, vegetables, algae, legumes, nuts, and seeds.
General recommendations for protein intake are 1-2 g/kg body weight. That is, if your weight is about 60 kg, you need 60-90 grams of protein, half of which should come from vegetable protein.
Also an important point – an excess of protein in the diet can lead to rather sad consequences – this is a big burden on the liver, kidneys, and the detoxification system as a whole.
Fats are organic compounds composed of esters of glycerol and fatty acids. Fats are vital for us, especially for women. And we, as usual, if we go on a diet, first of all we reduce the consumption of fats.
Many lipids are concentrated in the subcutaneous tissue and adipose tissue. Also found in muscle tissue, liver. In plants, fats are found in fruits and seeds. In the plant world, the so-called oilseeds are most saturated with lipids.
Fats are divided into saturated and unsaturated, which in turn are divided into monounsaturated and polyunsaturated. Saturated fats include all animal fats, butter, and coconut oil. Unsaturated fats are all vegetable fats, avocados, nuts, olives, seeds, fish and seafood.
It is important to monitor the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fats, since usually the preponderance leans towards the former, although it is better the other way around, since it is unsaturated fats that are the basis of all cell membranes.
The norm of fats for an adult is 1.5-2 g / kg.
When eating fats, keep in mind the ratio of Omega 3 to Omega 6, which should ideally be 5/1. This means that Omega 3 fatty acids in the diet should be more. Western diets do not contain omega 3 fatty acids and contain excessive amounts of omega 6 fatty acids compared to the diet in which humans evolved and their genetic patterns were established. Excess omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and the very high omega 6/omega 3 ratio found in today’s Western diets contribute to the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, while elevated levels of omega 3 PUFAs have an inhibitory effect.
Carbohydrates are inorganic compounds containing carbon (C) and hydroxyl groups (OH). Carbohydrates serve as the main substrate for energy production in our body. Also, carbohydrates are the most important participants in digestion, stimulate the work of the large intestine.
Carbohydrates can be divided into simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates are water-soluble white crystals that are sweet in taste. They have a high glycemic index and significantly increase blood glucose levels. These include all products made from white flour, pasta, preserves, jams, honey, sugar, and some dairy products. Complex carbohydrates, in turn, have a mechanical effect on the intestines, do not cause such a significant rise in insulin and blood glucose. Sources of complex carbohydrates are cereals, vegetables, fruits, berries and legumes.
The rate of carbohydrate intake is 3-5 g / kg of weight . With moderate and high physical activity, the need may increase to 7 g / kg of body weight.
The following are examples of the average diet of proper nutrition for every day for a child, a woman and a man. In each case, you need to make an adjustment for your degree of activity and your own taste. Everyone should avoid large amounts of sugar, soda, flour, convenience foods and fast food. You need to eat fractionally up to 4-5 times a day, and receive the main amount of food in 1 half of the day.
On average, a woman needs to eat about 1800 – 2000 kcal. The fair sex has a slower metabolism than men, so they gain weight faster. At the same time, the growth of muscle mass is difficult, unlike men.
During pregnancy, there is an active growth of another creature, and in a certain sense, you really need to “eat for two.” The calorie content of the diet for a pregnant woman should be from 2500 to 3500 kcal, so that there are enough nutrients for the growth of the child and further breastfeeding. Otherwise, the embryo “gets” what it needs from the mother’s body itself, destroying teeth and reducing overall weight.
In men, the metabolism is much more active, by nature there are more muscle tissues that require active nutrition with protein foods. On average, a man eats about 2000 – 2900 kcal per day. The calorie content of food especially increases in youth, during the period of muscle development and rapid growth.
Throughout life, a person grows so actively and develops only in childhood. Therefore, the calorie content of a child’s food should increase approximately every six months. When exercising in sports sections, the trainer will help to adjust the norm, taking into account the loads, and if the child is prone to obesity or low weight, the pediatrician and nutritionist will help. Each age has its own norm, depending on the needs at the moment. After 12-13 years, the calculation is almost like for an adult, taking into account active sexual development.
It is also necessary to properly distribute proteins, fats and carbohydrates throughout the day. The basic distribution rules are as follows :
- Breakfast is complex carbohydrates. The optimal solution is to take cereals. However, do not forget that breakfast, in addition to complex carbohydrates, should include proteins and fats for a balanced diet. Porridges can be supplemented with oils, you can eat an additional one or two eggs.
- Lunch – complex carbohydrates, white meat and vegetables. Perfect for stew with salad.
- Dinner – poultry, fish, eggs. Reduce the amount of carbohydrates consumed in the evening by adding more protein. Carbohydrates are necessary for energy, proteins – for the regeneration of cells and tissues.
- Eliminate the use of fast carbohydrates after 16.00.
- Include snacks , if it is difficult to maintain the intervals between main meals, preferably fatty ones.
Additional help to the body in the transition to proper nutrition
It is very important when switching to proper nutrition to help your body better adapt to new conditions. To do this, first of all, increase physical activity. A sedentary lifestyle is a common cause of health problems. Minimal physical activity or a small amount of physical activity contributes from a medical point of view to a decrease in bone mass, muscle atrophy, reduced endurance and deterioration of the joints and spine.
Form the habit of exercising daily. You don’t have to spend hours at the gym. Do what you like: yoga, dancing, cycling, running, sports games.
The main condition is that physical activity should bring pleasure. For example, home workouts can last 10-20 minutes. Agree, it will not take so much time, especially if the exercise can be combined with watching your favorite movie.
For people who are overweight, it is better to devote time to walking. Going in for sports, you can feel a daily surge of strength and energy.
It is also very important to work with stress and correct it. A successful weight loss result is difficult to achieve with lack of sleep and a bad mood. Cortisol, produced with lack of sleep, slows down the breakdown of fat cells. The high content of cortisol affects the slow achievement of a positive result of weight loss. Cortisol affects the accumulation of fat cells.
The content of this hormone in the blood increases due to stress, the use of caffeinated drinks. To lower your cortisol levels, try to reduce anxiety and alertness.
The process of transition to PP seems to many to be difficult and even improbable in principle. But by following these small gradual steps, you can still significantly correct the wrong diet and lifestyle.
Menu planning for proper nutrition
Try to make the right menu yourself. Feel free to include in your diet what you love, remember only moderate amounts of food in servings, as well as the correct ratio of BJU. To do this, you can use examples of ready-made menus, widely and variedly presented on the Internet.
Try not to skip your morning meal. It is he who plays an important role in good health throughout the day.
Approximate breakfast menu :
- Porridge + fruits or nuts + honey.
- Omelet + cheese + rye bread.
- Cottage cheese + fruits + honey.
Lunch is traditionally the main part of the daily diet in Russia. By skipping lunch, you can provoke a growing feeling of hunger in the evening, then it will be difficult to eliminate overeating.
Sample lunch menu :
- Meat, fish + garnish + vegetables.
- Vegetable soup + meat, fish.
- Stewed vegetables + meat, fish.
Mandatory components of a healthy lunch are complex carbohydrates and proteins.
It is generally accepted that a full dinner should be no later than 2-3 hours before bedtime. But skipping dinner can affect the deterioration of sleep, cause an increase in hunger.
Approximate dinner menu :
- Chicken, fish + vegetables.
- Vegetable salad + eggs.
- Vegetable casserole.
- Vegetable salad with quinoa or other grains.
If you are having difficulty with a clean three meals a day, you can and should add snacks. Fatty snacks, such as nuts, are best.
Recipes for proper nutrition
In order for proper nutrition to easily enter life, become an integral part of it, it is necessary to take care of the diversity of the diet. You can purchase a recipe book with photos and step-by-step instructions. Recipes are on thematic sites. Here are some interesting options.
The fastest breakfast is protein or protein pancakes. Even a novice cook can cook them.
- dry protein mix for baking – 100 grams;
- any milk – 100 milliliters;
- sugar substitute or berry syrup;
- any fruits or berries for decoration, serving.
Mix the ingredients until smooth. Bake pancakes in a dry frying pan without adding oil.
Curd dessert with fruits and gelatin
The favorite dessert of schoolchildren is cottage cheese with fruit. He will be able to replace sweets, various confectionery, pastries. It’s very easy to make and doesn’t even need to be baked in the oven.
- fat-free cottage cheese – 200 grams;
- low-calorie sour cream or Greek yogurt – 100 grams;
- sugar substitute or honey to taste;
- a tablespoon of lemon juice;
- a bag (15 grams) of gelatin;
- 100 milliliters of water;
- any fruit.
Dissolve a bag of gelatin in water, leave to swell. Mix it with cottage cheese, sour cream, sugar substitute until a homogeneous mixture. You can beat with a mixer or blender. Put the bottom of the bowl with fruit, on top – the curd layer, on top of the berries. Put in the refrigerator for an hour.
Cheesecakes with bran and banana
Another simple recipe for beginners is light, inexpensive, simple cheesecakes with banana and bran.
- fat-free cottage cheese – 300 grams;
- one chicken egg (only protein can be put);
- whole grain flour – 3 tablespoons;
- bran – 2 tablespoons;
- a pinch of salt;
- sweetener to taste.
Mix all the ingredients and bake in a dry frying pan without adding oil. Flour can be replaced with oatmeal ground in a coffee maker.
A simple and quick dinner recipe for beginner chefs of proper nutrition.
- radish – 150-200 grams;
- a mixture of lettuce leaves – 100 grams;
- one small carrot;
- bunch of green onions;
- three cloves of garlic;
- salt to taste;
- vegetable oil for dressing.
Finely chop the vegetables and herbs, mix with vegetable oil, rubbed garlic on a fine grater.
The simplest, most delicious, familiar from childhood salad is beetroot.
- boiled beets – one small;
- two or three minced garlic cloves;
- three tablespoons of sour cream or Greek yogurt;
Mix all ingredients. Serve with parsley.
A good dinner option is a salad with tuna.
- canned tuna in its own juice – one can;
- cherry tomatoes – 7-8 pieces;
- two chicken eggs;
- one cucumber;
- one bulb;
- a mixture of lettuce leaves;
- olive oil for dressing;
- a little lemon juice;
Cut the ingredients, mix, season with lemon juice and olive oil.
Vegetable soup with chicken
Soups must be included in the diet, especially for schoolchildren and students. One of the simplest recipes is vegetable with chicken.
- two small potatoes;
- one bulb;
- one carrot;
- bell pepper;
- chicken fillet.
Cut the chicken into cubes, boil. Add vegetables, salt to the broth, cook until tender. When serving, you can decorate with herbs.
In the ranking of the TOP most interesting dishes for proper nutrition, carrot soup occupies a leading position. Most people are skeptical about it. It is believed that such food cannot be tasty. But, having properly prepared carrot soup once, many leave it in their diet.
- three large carrots;
- two potatoes;
- a tablespoon of butter;
- one bulb;
- three cups of chicken broth or water;
- salt, spices (curry, ginger, cardamom).
Boil vegetables until tender. Beat in a blender until puree, adding broth, butter, spices.
Brussels sprout soup with cream
This soup can be cooked on the stovetop or in a slow cooker.
- chicken broth – liter;
- Brussels sprouts – 300 grams;
- one carrot;
- leek – half a root;
- onion – one piece;
- two tablespoons of butter;
- two or three potatoes;
- 100 milliliters of cream;
- one egg;
- salt, ground black pepper, nutmeg, bay leaf.
Boil vegetables until tender. Beat in a blender until smooth, adding broth, cream, butter, spices.
You can quickly cook tomato soup for dinner. This is a delicious, unusual, yet simple and healthy dish.
- tomatoes – 1 kilogram;
- a few cloves of garlic;
- cream – 100 milliliters;
- two tablespoons of olive oil;
- salt, oregano, basil.
Scald the tomatoes with boiling water, remove the skin and cook over low heat with the addition of onions. After they acquire a uniform consistency, add oil, spices, salt.
Pumpkin baked with egg
A simple and healthy meal is a pumpkin baked with an egg. It can go as an independent dish for dinner or as a snack.
- pumpkin – 500 grams;
- two or three eggs;
- two tablespoons of butter;
- salt and spices to taste, a set of Provence herbs is well suited.
Cut pumpkin into small pieces. Beat the eggs like an omelet, add to the herb mixture and pour over the pieces. Send to the oven for 40-50 minutes until cooked.
light stewed cabbage recipe
You can stew cabbage in a saucepan, slow cooker or in a regular frying pan. This simple dish can be a good dinner or side dish for lunch.
- white cabbage – 500 grams;
- small bulb;
- two tablespoons of vegetable oil;
- salt, black pepper.
Finely chop the onion and cabbage, grate the carrots. Simmer in a frying pan with oil and water until tender.
Chicken baked with vegetables
The perfect lunch is chicken baked with vegetables.
- chicken fillet;
- bell pepper;
- two tablespoons of vegetable oil or low-fat sour cream.
Cut vegetables and meat into pieces, put in a mold, add butter or sour cream. Bake in the oven until done, about 30-40 minutes.
Chicken fillet in mustard sauce
This option is well suited not only for everyday dinner, but also for a festive feast.
- chicken fillet – 500 grams;
- one carrot and onion;
- three tablespoons of low-fat sour cream;
- two tablespoons;
- two teaspoons of flour;
- a glass of boiling water;
- some vegetable oil.
Marinate the meat in advance in sour cream and mustard, leave for an hour and a half. Fry carrots and onions in a pan, add meat, boiling water. Simmer until done.
An interesting option for dinner or lunch is a casserole with zucchini.
- one bulb;
- one bell pepper;
- a tomato;
- two or three eggs;
- 200 milliliters of kefir or low-fat sour cream;
- some cheese with a low fat content;
- salt, pepper, herbs to taste.
Cut vegetables into thin strips. Lay in layers, spreading with sour cream or kefir. Bake in the oven for 40-50 minutes. Sprinkle with cheese and herbs before serving.
Zucchini baked with minced chicken
One of the options for zucchini casserole is with minced meat. The recipe remains the same, but the layers between the vegetables need to be shifted with meat. So the dish will turn out much tastier, juicier.
Pollock with stewed vegetables
Pollock is a favorite fish of children and schoolchildren. It is juicy, tender, the main thing is to cook it correctly.
- pollock – one fish;
- sour cream – 150-200 milliliters;
- salt, pepper to taste.
Place pollock pieces in a baking dish, pour over sour cream, salt. Lay sliced vegetables on top. Bake everything together in the oven until cooked, sprinkle with cheese and herbs before serving.
Diet pilaf with chicken
Usually pilaf is cooked with pork. It turns out quite fatty, heavy. A healthy, but no less tasty alternative is with chicken.
- chicken fillet;
- rice (polished or brown) – one glass;
- water – two glasses;
- two tablespoons of vegetable oil.
Cut the chicken breast into cubes, fry with onions and carrots over low heat. Pour a glass of rice, pour water and simmer until tender.
Proper nutrition is a tasty, healthy, varied diet that gives not only a beautiful figure, but also good health and good health.